Essay Autobiographical Notes Quizlet

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Cognitive Psychology Quizlet of Notes Exam 1

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_____ _____ is the study of how people perceive, learn, remember, and think about informationcognitive psychology.  See more: http://essaylab.com/blog-psychology-essays

The _____ knew that the brain was the seat of reasonAncients

______ 400 BC said Brain CREATES the mindHippocrates

_____ dualism overshadowed Hippocrates, even though it was wrongPlato

____ Dualism:
-mind= immaterial and immortal
-brain= material and controlled basic functionsPlato

______ dualism followed Plato dualismDescartes

correct view is…
_____ _____ ____brain creates mind

Wundt believed in _______structuralism

______= understanding the mind by analyzing its parts
-uses introspectionStructuralism

Pavlov and Watson believed in ______Behaviorism

_____= only observable behavior should be studied
-classical conditioning
-operant conditioning
*works good for lower animalsbehaviorism

_____ and others put cognition back at the center of the stageChomsky

_____ ____ are the most accurate method of arriving at new infolab experiments

____ ____ are personal accounts of cognitive processesself reports

____ ____ look for manipulations that cant be introduced into labscase studies

The mind is what the ____ doesbrain

______ _____= integrating information from cognitive science, brain science, computer simulation, etc to create integrative models of mental processescognitive neuroscience

_____= a cell specialized for transmitting information
dendrites receive
axons sendneuron

______ allow the brain to interact with the rest of the bodyneurons

The _____ nervous system sends info to and carries out instructions from muscles and glands to the brain and spinal cord
it does NOT process any informationperipheral

the _____ ____ takes sensory information from the body to the brain
*does some information processing but not muchspinal cord

The ____ is the center of all higher level cognitionbrain

The complexity of the brain increases from ____ to ____back front

3 parts of the brainforebrain midbrain hindbrain

The hindbrain is made of
-M_______
-P_______
-C_______Medulla
Pons
Cerebellum

_____= respiration and heartbeatMedulla

____= interbrain communicationPons

_____= gross motor movementcerebellum

The Midbrain is made of the
-____
-________
involved with sleep/wake cycleTectum
Tegmentum

The Forebrain is made of
-_____ _____
-_____ ______
-_______
-______cerebral cortex
basal ganglia
amygdala
hippocampus

______ ______= the outer most layer of the brain involved with memory, attention, language, motor actions, vision, hearingcerebral cortex

_____ _____= motor actions, emotions, eye movementbasal ganglia

_______= memory storage specifically autobiographical/episodic memoryhippocampus

______= fear processing, emotional memory and processing
good at storing negative memoriesamygdala

The brain is connected by the
____ _____corpus callosum

The corpus callosum is often cut for patients that have ____epilepsy

The Brains 4 Lobes are
-F______
-P______
-O______
-T_____frontal
parietal
occipital
temporal

_____ lobe= reasoning, memory formation, motor controlfrontal

_____ lobe= sensory & visuo-spatial processingparietal

_____ lobe= visualoccipital

_____ lobe= auditory processing and long-term memorytemporal

How do we Study the Brain? (7)Postmortem
EEG
CAT
PET
MRI
fMRI
DTI

_______ studies = observing changes in the brain after death to understand how lesions affect cognitive functionspostmortem

_ _ _ = records electrical activity of the brain
• can see seizures, sleep disorders, sleep
• adv : high temporal resolution
• dis: low spatial resolutionEEG

_ _ _ = takes multiple x-rays from various angles and reconstructs an image of the brain regionsCAT

_ _ _ = inject mildly radioactive isotope w/ glucose into the blood stream which is absorbed by brain cells depending upon the rate of metabolism

• major adv: can measure brain activation during information processing!

PET
_ _ _ = creates a magnetic field around the brain and generates a computerized image of internal structures

– can show tumors, blood clots, vessel deformities

MRI

_ _ _ _ = it makes a magnetic field and generates an image showing the level brain of activity at any given point by looking at used amounts of oxygen at different brain regions as an index of activity
adv! = Active !!!fMRI

_ _ _ = a technique that can be implemented in fMRI

– shows how different regions of the brain are connected

DTI

information processing requires incoming _____information

_______ = input from sense organs to the brainsensation

_______ = “to know” what the received information isperception

Why study vision (3)well understood
most prominent
basic processes of perception are common for all senses

RTTIPreception
transduction
transmission
integration
perception

______ = receiving physical energy form the external world

– photons, sound waves, molecules

reception
_____ = converting physical energy into neural signals

– rods & cones, hair cells, olfactory receptors

transduction
_____ = transferring information to the brain

– PVC, TL, olfactory bulb

transmission
______= processing by primary and association areas

–> perception!

integration

the electromagnetic wavelengths we can see vary from400
750

Neural Mechanism:
– light enters through the _____
– hits the _____
– projected on the _____ invertedcornea
lens
retina

rods are for ______
cones are for _____brightness
color

Rods and cones convert light into _______ ____electrochemical energy

______ contains the most receptors, especially conesfovea

________ –> _______ cell –> _____ cell –> _ _ _photoreceptor
bipolar
ganglion
PVC

Half of the optic nerve of each eye crosses over at the ____ ____optic chiasma

optic chiasma –> ____ ____ thalamus –> _ _ _lateral geniculate
PVC

V1 –> V2 and ______ & _____ lobes for further processingtemporal
parietal

______ ______ ____ = color, motion, shape, depthparallel processing system

The dorsal “____” pathwaywhere

the ventral “____” pathwaywhat

the dorsal “where” pathway projects to the ____ cortexparietal

the ventral “what” pathway goes to the _____ ____temporal lobe

Evidence for the two pathways comes from conditions where these functions are uniquely _____damaged

_____ ____ = difficulty perceiving objects

-damaged “what” pathway
– rose quote
– man who mistook his wife for a hat

visual agnosia
______ = the inability to perceive motion

– perception of frozen images
– damaged “where” pathway

akinetopsia

The two processes in perception are ___ ____ and ____ ___top down
bottom up

top down and bottom up often work ______together

_____ ___ perception = sensory info about an object going to higher cortical regionsbottom up

____ ___ perception = higher cortical regions make predictions about sensory inputtop down

Bottom-up theories presume that perception starts with info reaching the ____. It is data-driven!eye

Top-down theories assume that perception stars with higher level cognitive processes, existing knowledge and ______expectation

________ _______ Theory : (B-U)
• sensory info is sufficient for visual recognition
• all the necessary info is already present in environment
• There is no inference/expectationDirect Perception

_______ Theory : (B-U)
• we store patterns in our memory and recognize objects by matching the templateTemplate

____ _____ Theory : (B-U)
• match PARTS of an object to patterns in memory rather than entire objectFeature Matching

Limitations of Bottom-Up Theories:

• cant account for the ____ of visual processing

• cant fully account for why we can recognize ____ objects

speed
partial
Top-Down Theories
•Perception depends on
– what we ____ (sensory data)
– what we ____ ( memory )
– what we can ____ (using knowledge/intelligence)

• cant account for context effects — inferring information from context

sense
know
infer

• Lack of sensory info = more _____ ____top down

• New/unexpected info = more _____ ___bottom up

______ ______ representation = objects are perceived the way it looks to the viewer

(what you think it looks like)

viewer centered
_____ _____ representation = representing an object independent of its appearance

(what it actually looks like)

object centered

______ _____ representation = referring to a known item to recognize the features of an object
ex: guy next to Robert Wadlowlandmark centered

________ principle = the whole is greater than the sum of its partsGestalt

_____ _____ perception (GL) = perceiving some aspects of an image (figure) makes others recede into the background (ground)figure ground

_______ (GL) = objects closer to each other are grouped togetherproximity

______ (GL) = similar objects are grouped togethersimilarity

_____ (GL) = objects are perceived as complete/closedclosure

______ (GL) = objects are perceived as continuous (not broken)continuity

______ (GL) = objects are grouped as symmetricalsymmetry

_____ are less prone to perceptual illusionsanimals

Functions of Gestalt Laws
• ______ which help organize info as a whole rather than fragmented parts
• allows us to focus on one aspect of the environment while ignoring othersheuristics

________ constancies = ability to perceive an object as the same even when the received sensation changesperceptual

the two constancies are _____ and _____size
shape

_____ constancy = to perceive an object as the same size when it moves towards or away from the viewersize

_____ constancy = objects maintain shape despite changes in the retinal imageshape

Recognizing faces is unique and involves specialized processes?TRUE

The two systems of facial recognition are
• ______ _____ system

• ________ system

feature analysis
configurational

______ ______ system = identifying parts (nose, beard, eyebrows)feature analysis

________ system = recognizing the overall configuration (the face as a whole)configurational

The facial recognition uses configurational system and _____ _____ (temporal lobe)fusiform gyrus

the fusiform gyrus is also specialized for any _____ stimuli

• experts on birds and cars show activation in the fusiform gyrus as well

complex

________= the inability to recognize familiar facesprosophagnosia

Depth Perception

• we perceive in 3D though the retinal image is _ _

2D
Monocular Cues: Closer objects…
• appear ______ ( texture gradient )

• appear ______ ( relative size )

• obscures distant objects

clearer
larger
Monocular Cues:

______ perspectice = parallel lines converge towards the horizon

linear
Monocular Cues:

_____ _____ = the size of moving objects increases/decreases at a constant rate

motion parallax

Binocular cues work with both ____eyes

_________ ________ = each eye sends slightly different images to the brain (used in 3D videography)

– greater with closer objects

binocular disparity

_____ _____ = eye muscles turn inwards/outwards as the object moves closer/further awaybinocular convergence

_____ _____ = cant reach for objects

•caused by parietal lesion

optic ataxia

______ = Colorblindness. lack of cones in retina. can only see black and whiteachromacy

______ = active processing of information

– prereq for all higher level cognitive functions

attention

attention is the ___ function assessed in clinical and research settingsfirst

attetion IS a limited ______ unlike memoryresource

Five components of attentionsignal detection
vigilance
search
selective attention
divided attention

______ _____ = detecting a stimulus of interestsignal detection

______ = maintaining attention over a period of timevigilance

_____= searching for a specific stimulussearch

______ ______ = choosing between competing stimulusselective attention

_____ _____ = attending to ; 1 events/activitydivided attention

_____ ______ theory = how we identify important information among other, irrelevant infosignal detection

signal = _____stimulus

Four possible outcomes of Signal Detectionhits
miss
correct rejection
false alarm

____ = detecting a signal (right!)hits

____ = fail to detect a signal (wrong)miss

____ ___ = not detecting an absent signal ( right)correct rejection

____ ____ = detecting an absent signal (wrong)false alarm

Signal Detection Theory
• We can set our criteria for hits and errors, BUT-high hits /*> high false alarms
*/
– high correct rejection /*> higher misses

criteria for accuracy can be set ______ based on what is at stakearbitrarily

_______ = the ability to maintain attention over prolonged periods of timevigilance

Vigilance requires attention, but attention does not guarantee ______ !vigilance

Vigilance is important for these occupationsair traffic controllers
*/
security personnel
physicians

_____ = actively looking for a stimulussearch

search is made difficult by non-target stimuli called _____distractors

_____ _____ and ______ pertains to stimuli which are already presentsignal detection
vigilance

_____ _____ = concentrating on one aspect of the environment while ignoring othersselective attention

_____ ____ ____ = hear your name at a partycocktail party effect

______ ______ _____ =

• dif. sounds sent to each ear
• attend one ear, ignore other

dichotic listening task

The Unattended Ear processes
– tone of _____ / voice to monotone
– switch from __ to __
– mention of ones ____voice
male female
name

The unattended ear DOES NOT process
– ______ info
– change in _____ (Eng-Ger)
– info played ____semantic
language
backwards

_______ model =
• we filter out irrelevant info after the sensory state and focus on one aspect for higher processingBroadbent

_____ _____ model =
• instead of blocking irrelevant stimuli, the filter only attenuates the stimulus. At some level even unattended info is perceptually processTreisman Attenuation

______ & _____ Late Selection Model=
• selection occurs late, after perceptual and some conceptual processingDeutsch Deutsch

Current evidence suggests the filter is placed ___ than the point suggested by Deutsch & Deutsch BUT ____ than the Treisman modelearlier
later

All theories say that attention is a _____ _____ and has to be allocated between conflicting stimulilimited resource

______ suggested a synthesis of the early (Broadbent) and Late Selection ( D & D ) modelsNeisser

Neisser said that there were ____ different processes governing attentiontwo

Neissers “Preattentive Processes” occur ____ in the phase and are fast. The Attentive Processes occur later and are ____early
slow

_____ _____ = engaged in ; 1 task simultaneously. it generally takes its toll on both activitiesDivided Attention

Divided Attention can
• _____ with practice
• tasks can be _____ to consume fewer resourcesimproved
automatized

There are ___ theories of divided attentiontwo

A. Attention is a single resourced divided between _____ tasks
B. Attentional Resources are _____ specificmultiple
modality

Resource Theory for Complex Tasks
• more automization= ____ ___less attention

The Four factors that affect attention
____ = soccer player misses longer wait
____= sleepy, tired, intoxicated
____ ____ = hard/new tasks require more
____= more skill/practiceanxiety
arousal
task difficulty
skills

____ ____ = the inability to see change in objects/scene (ex: jet engine pic)change blindness

_ _ _ _= characterized by inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivenessADHD

ADHD is diagnosed in _____
M:F: is _:_
deficits in prefrontal cortex, norepi, and dopaminechildren
3:1

60% of ADHD also have _____dyslexia

3 Types of ADHD
-______
-______-_____
– combination of bothinattentive
hyperactive-impulsive

______ ADHD
• easily distracted
• failing to pay attention
• careless mistakes
• poor vigilance/sustained attention
• forgetting/losing things
• jumping between incomplete tasksinattentive

Inattentive ADHD is treated with _____ like ritalinstimulants

_____ _____ =
• neurological condition
• ignoring the visual field on the contralateral hemisphere of brain lesion
• dress only one side (right often), eat half plate of food
Not due to visual deficitsSpatial Neglect

______ = paying less attention to a repeated stimulushabituation

_______ = paying attention to a habituated stimulus often due to change in its characteristicsdishabituation

Uses of ______
• helps us to focus on what matters
• used extensively in infant and toddler research
• ADHD /*> decreased habituationhabit

_______ = paying less attention to a repeated stimulushabituation

habituation is an _______ phenomenonattentional

______ ____ = the lessening of response to a stimulus, occurs at the level of the sense organssensory adaptation

sensory adaptation is a ________ phenomenaphysiological

habituation does NOT depend on _____ ____stimulus intensity

habituation can be affected by previous _____experience

Habituation becomes easier with ____practice

we cant choose to ____/____ to a stimulus. Its automaticadapt/disadapt

In sensory adaptation, the ______ _____ mattersstimulus intensity

the _______ of sensory neurons in sensory adaptationhyperpolarization

sensory adaptation is ______ to number of previous exposuresunrelated

_______ processes
*/
• involve little conscious control
• requires less attention and effort
• several tasks can be performed simultaneouslyautomatic

_____ processes
• accessible to conscious control
• require attention and effort
• performed serially (one after the other)controlled

_______ = the mechanism by which controlled processes become automatic with practiceautomatization

____ is an automatized processreading

_____: the lack of automatization in readingdyslexia

automatization helps perform under ____stress

____= the presentation of one stimulus can affect the perception o f the secondpriming

priming can occur even in the absence of ____memory

______= knowing a word but not being able to retrieve itTip of the Tongue

____= not consciously seeing but eyes still work
• due to lesion in visual cortexblindsight

blindsight people cant consciously see but show evidence of ____knowing

blindsight people can blindly guess above ____ ___chance level

The ____ ____ is required for conscious visual processingvisual cortex

residual _____ _____ can occur through pathways to other brain regionsvisual processing

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